The ability to study the living without destroying it has been the goal of many scientists for decades. A new article in ACS Nano has paved the road towards noninvasive cellular-level examination. The only true way to study cellular dynamics is to study a single cell over time (temporally). The reason for this is the heterogeneous nature of any cell culture because no two cells are identical spatially and temporally. Each individual cell has its own set of experiences that has generated its current molecular inventory, ie. RNA molecules, metabolites, proteins, sugars, lipids, etc. Studying a community of cells gives rise to noise that makes finding significant differences incredibly difficult.
In the article entitled Compartmental Genomics in Living Cells Revealed by Single-Cell Nanobiopsy, the authors used a kind of microscopy called scanning ion conductance microscopy, or SICM, that allows for continuous sampling of a single cell over time. The authors used a nanopipette as part of the SICM and combined this with sensitive sequencing techniques resulting in a high resolution look at what genes are being expressed over time into RNA molecules. Furthermore, this technique was used to study the genomic information of individual mitochondria within a single cell without also studying the nuclear material. In other words, this new technique has resulted in the ability to not only study cellular dynamics, but go beyond that and study subcellular dynamics.
This breakthrough will have impacts across many fields from cancer biology to improving climate models.
Paolo Actis, Michelle M. Maalouf, Hyunsung John Kim, Akshar Lohith, Boaz Vilozny, R. Adam Seger, & Nader Pourmand (2013). Compartmental Genomics in Living Cells Revealed by Single-Cell Nanobiopsy ACS Nano DOI: 10.1021/nn405097u
When it comes to synthetic biology, two species of microorganisms should automatically come to mind; E. coli and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Both have been used extensively for proof of principle research. Thanks to these investigations, both are able to synthesize a drop-in biodiesel.
First, there was biology which began in earnest in the 19th century. Then came molecular biology in the 1920s and the foundation of mutagenesis set forth by Herman Muller in 1927. Then, genetic engineering was first applied in 1972 the lab of Paul Berg. Finally, humans had the ability to manipulate living organisms in a specific, directed way. Fast forward 38 years to the announcement by J. Craig Venter that the first synthetic organism was created with a completely synthetic genome. However, Mother Nature is very particular about what exactly humans can do with respect to organismal manipulation. The naive thought that simple addition of genes from one organism into a more suitable organism would lead to theoretical, effective production of desired chemicals was soon the way of the albatros.
This is when scientists had to take a step back and rethink their strategy. They had to consider gene regulation (positive and negative feedback), build-up of secondary metabolites, toxicity of produced end products, etc. It wasn’t enough to add genes coding for enzymes necessary for desired chemical production. Through the advancements of bioinformatics, computation biology, and a nascent field called systems biology, scientists are just now starting to see the fruits of their labor.
Humor me; type in “engineering bacteria” into Google News. Take a look at the headlines that pop up in your browser. Look at the amazing advancements that are happening currently and imagine what is to come…