To paraphrase a great movie classic, Wall Street.
I want to change focus a bit, from bacteria benefiting mankind by cleaning up our messes and providing electricity, to another great benefit of bacteria; their pliability. It is very easy to manipulate the genetics of bacteria (see Biohacking). This owes to their genome structure and lack of miles of “junk” DNA. This means scientists can insert genes from one bacterium into a more well-known bacterium, like E. coli, to perform a novel function and, in a way, reverse millions of years of evolution. For example, in 2011, Jay Keasling and his team at the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) modified E. coli to degrade switchgrass biomass into sugars. Not only that, the E. coli fermented the sugars into gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel without enzyme additives. Think about it; E. coli, a bacterium that colonizes the digestive tracts of mammals, is able to breakdown plant material and directly convert it into fuel. That is amazing. I’m working on an illustration to depict this, so check back.